Building preventive maintenance deals with prevention of deterioration of building parts and ensure the quality life of structure. A civil engineer has to carry out necessary preventive measures as per standards while executing building construction.
It is pre-planning for inspection, repair, testing of structural elements to ensure capacity of structure to perform its intended function.
Necessity of Preventive Maintenance
- To perform execution work with less number of problems
- Reduce repairs in future
- Analyse strength and weakness of site with respect to nature of project
- To prevent wear and tear of structural elements
- Identify possibilities of failure of structural elements
- Identify possibilities of failure of machinery/equipments while working on site
- To ensure life of structure and its parts
Ways to do Preventive Maintenance
1. Location of Site and Site Selection
Topographic data is studied in this.
Location is dependent on type of structure and its intended function.
The environment of location should be suitable to project.
All survey reports should be referred and maintained.
Site selection depends on geotechnical data, tests and reports.
Geotechnical data includes soil report, seismic data, resistant to vibrations, slopes, etc..
All these characteristics should be studied before job layout.
2. Sub-surface Structure
All detailed drawings (foundation plan, elevations, sections, etc.) are supposed to be provided by structural engineer along with reinforcement details and its quantity .
Finalised drawings should be referred and maintained on site.
B. Tools and Equipment
Preparing list of all tools and equipment required for specific activity. (Lead and lifting operators, dewatering equipment, excavation tools, pumping units)
Regular check up by technicians and their reports should be maintained.
Price / market survey of machines and then selection of suitable equipment should be done.
Records of shallow and deep excavations done on site.
C. Materials used
Availability, transportation and price are important factors for planning of material to be bought.
Activities carried out are timbering/shoring/strutting/plinth filling/etc.
Quality of each and every selected material should be checked before using. Selection is done as per specification of item.
Daily record of material used is maintained.
Daily record of entries in register, wages paid, work done is maintained in record book.
Site engineer is responsible for safety of workers.
Super structure construction includes major activities like casting of slab / column / beam, erection of walls, staircase /elevator, level difference of bath/WC and floor, etc. This work requires number of machines / material / workers.
Pre planning and scheduling of all the work is necessary and important to avoid problems while executing. Step by step procedure should be followed as per standards given.
Detailed drawings are provided by architect which includes plan, elevation, section, electrical layout, plumbing layout, drainage systems, sewer lines are to be studied thoroughly by site engineer.
Details of height and level differences should also be mentioned.
RCC details should be provided by structural engineer for column, slab, beam.
B. Tools / Equipment / Machines
Selection of correct equipment for specific activity/work.
Easy removal, placing, replacing, washing of parts of equipment is ensured and record of same is maintained.
Record of daily maintenance and timely inspection by technicians.
Training of planned and unplanned shut down of machines.
Storage and record of testing machines on site.
Schedule of regular lubrication.
Procedure for assemble and disassemble of equipment.
Draining and ventilating facilities for equipment and tools.
C. Materials Used
Selection of appropriate materials, record of reports after testing materials is maintained.
Scheduled erection of temporary structure, storages on site.
Assemble and disassemble of shuttering, shoring, supports, etc. And its quantity record after work at the end of the day is prepared.
Timely supply of required material on site and record of bills, vouchers, payment details to be maintained.
Safety of material on site from unsuitable environmental conditions.
Supervision of mixing, batching activities as per concrete grade and standard guidelines provided should be followed carefully to avoid concrete issues in future.
Scheduling concrete testing before casting and their reports for reference.
R.C.C. bars cutting/welding as per layout and strict supervision should be done to avoid failure of elements in future.
D. Labour / Workers / Contractors
Training of handling and working with tools is essential.
Payment of workers on daily wages or item work specified is done time to time and record is maintained of same.
Ensured safety of workers working on height.
First aid and life saving techniques.
Strict supervision of workers working near lice electrical equipment and machines.
Selection of skilled workers for major and important item work.
Some Important Points in Building Maintenance
Budget is planned by a technical team for carrying out all the preventative maintenance of building.
Graphical representation can also done on the basis of records and data collected from site engineer.
In case of precast elements, manufacturer’s information / market price / reports from manufacturing company are collected.
Precast elements details are specified as per the nature of project.
Interlocking system in such elements is supervised and delivered product is checked before placing.
Planned and unplanned maintenance is prepared by the technical team to overcome or avoid all the possible problems during and after execution.
– Vrushali Pathak