B.I.M.: Building Information Modelling is a tool for conceptualising collaborative work in the construction industry. BIM is digitized and Data Analytical Modelling, certainly this has become a signature for smoother and efficient workflow.
A construction-oriented project requires documentation as a necessary component of work. Somehow, technology has changed the protocols and the means to communicate. Efficient documentation has evolved from paper media to electronic media through computer-aided designs. The shift in the paradigm has changed the way of this collaborative process as an association of computer documented environment known as Building Information Modelling.
BIM refers to a collaborative way of working which is based on the generation and exchange of programme records and information data between the various project parties. This all process of information exchange should be in a cycle of work from conceptualisation to completion of project in a managed work order.
Levels of B.I.M.
A construction project has a hierarchy of project stakeholders; these share information at different levels of data exchange. These are known as BIM maturity levels. As and when the level tier increases, the data exchange and analytical collaboration from both parties increases.
Level 0 : Low Collab
It is the simplest form of data sharing. The project Information is produced on Computer-Aided Design. Whereas, the information is shared with the team as paper and prints. Level 0 maintains the sharing of design in paper media but not the generated Information model in any digitized form. However, the construction industry is way too ahead of this level nowadays.
Level 1 : Skimmed Collaboration
Project Management Consultancies have created a Common Data Environment (CDE) for online sharing of data. This data is collected and managed as 2D and 3D pieces of information model. Even after all this, generated models are not shared as a whole among different levels of stakeholders.
Level 2 : Full Collaboration
The project managers and members are informed with all information of the project. This level involves two more major aspects namely, Time management and Budget Calculation. Alternatively, a unified BIM model is available to all project members for full access and modification.
Level-3 : Full Integrity
Construction industry has attained a full integration (iBIM) by information sharing through a cloud-based environment with common shared model for all aspects of the project like mechanical consultancies, Structural Consultancies, Architectural and Engineering consultancies.
However, In this case, the copyright and responsible sharing are expected issues to be solved.
Virtual Dimensions of B.I.M
The BIM virtual dimensions are different from the levels. However, connected the data flown into the level has direct relation with these dimensions. Altogether and namely the dimension are stated as a brief list:
- 2D: Planned drawings and data on paper media.
- 3D: 3D generated models of the drawings.
- 4D: This dimension deals with all-time management and scheduling of the project.
- 5D: Costs involvement and Budget handling of the project.
- 6D: This dimension is dedicated to the life cycle management of the project.
BIM as the Change of Construction Dynamics
Construction’s future has a decisive effect on user adoption of BIM. Digital Solutions should be brought in the hands of field workers to bridge the gap. The link between boardroom and work field is maintained through seamless BIM model for the need to be able to take updates of tasks and progress of project ongoing from ground level.
The entire project teams, like mechanical, engineering, architectural and other consultants can stream their workflow in coordination with others in the digital environment of the BIM model by extending project valuable project data. BIM is not only about the 3D gaudy model approach but also focuses on the data analytics.
BIM generalises the workflow that is common to all stakeholders in the project. The protocol of BIM brings about different levels of transparency depending upon the role of the individual in the project.
BIM and Inter-Relation of Construction processes
Architects and Engineers present the project as a design-oriented model. This model has to be conveyed from office to field. Design is subjected to alter due to improper communication and contingency changes on site. This is subjected to affect cost handling and time management. So, an inter-connected BIM model would be viable in such a case to alter calculations based on any case.
Estimation and Costing
Traditional construction project would require a detailed estimate made manually by a skilled individual. However, a BIM model estimates in a simpler, effective and accurate process through data analytics. Project is modelled with materials and components with construction input. These inputs and data are valued by the unit price for estimation and costing.
Scheduling and Time Management
The communication time and frame of management for construction between the field and work office is bridged by BIM. Scheduling is associated with people who are well aware of it. The analysis relies on the design and process related to construction. BIM features the objects in the model and relates its sequencing in construction for placing it on the site.
Any construction of a building requires monitoring of the progress, status scheduling, and directing project operations for a scheduled and managed work process. BIM offers the project team to minimise faulty environment and unmet expectations at reduced claims and disputes. This is done by eliminating wasted associations of project scheduling.
BIM processes are stated as modelled and construction conductive designs. After the construction processes too, BIM seamlessly offers advantages for the ongoing functions and operations of the building environment. This gives the owner and user of the building the data of the building systems. This data can be used for maintenance, or analysing equipments in planning or efficiency improvement.
Advantages of BIM for Construction Industry
The workflow in BIM LEVELS justifies the different process and approach of project handling, and the transition of the work order in levels have had benefits for the construction industry in terms of smoother execution and management.
However, a certain set of advantages are quoted as follows:
1. Increased Productivity
BIM shares information faster and in ease of access, these results in efficient productivity. Boosts in productivity mean lower cost and extension in the efficiency factor in terms of project planning.
2. Higher Form of Data Recording
Building Information Modelling helps in efficiently handling huge amount of data. A data record is stored following the field of project scope separately, yet accessible to individuals if access is permissible according to project handling profile like engineers, architects and contractor etc.
3. Lower Context Feasibility
Optimisation in construction processes will soon be available at root levels and lower project contexts too. The context here depicts the integrity of the project even at smaller and remote scale. This feature will be used for tackling difficulties at small scale construction too.
4. Better results in Quality Management
Data records of large amount and diverse project field will result in higher efficiency and maintaining higher precision. This precision will be a result of higher data record and project information in all context.
5. Data Redundancy and Fault Detection
Potential mistakes are emerged in building construction due to design-construction conflicts. BIM helps in identification of such data redundancy and clash-detection with the help of project handling and data analytics. BIM provides great assistance for increasing project efficiency.
Construction Industry will experience even more efficiency and collaborative working amongst all project handlers through the integration of BIM. It is an asset of real value that envisions a large scale implication to enable a change. BIM represents inter-operations of construction industry for serving project demands through technology.
– Anshul Kulshrestha